Space Weather


What is Space weather?


It describes the interaction between the Sun and conditions in space that affect Earth . Storms on the Sun can produce bursts of charged particles. These shoot out into space, and sometimes end up hitting the Earth. Space weather phenomena include the Northern lights and solar radiation storms. Sometimes these bursts of charged particles can effect technological systems.








Latest GOES Solar X-ray ImageLatest SDO/HMI Continuum ImageSTEREO Rotating 0 DEGREE FACING EARTH






SOHO LASCO C2 over last few daysLatest SOHO LASCO C2 ImageLatest SOHO LASCO C3






Latest Coronagraph ImageSDO/HMI MagnetogramAIA 193


Solar Activity


For more data go to http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/

NOAA,Space Weather Alerts and Warnings text



Text message about space weather Alerts and Warnings.



The US Aurora map


This gives a forecast of the intensity of the auroral oval and is based on the solar wind conditions and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. The map shows the intensity and the location of the auroral oval for the time given in the bottom of the map. The forecast is based on the current solar wind conditions and the average time for the solar wind to propagate from the ACE satellite at the L1 Lagrange point to Earth.


The red line about 621 miles (1000 km) equator-ward of the aurora indicates how far away viewers on the ground might see the aurora assuming good viewing conditions. The Display: Shows the intensity and location of the aurora as expected for the time shown at the bottom of the map.




Profile of bow shock and magnetopause. The data is updated every five minutes


Real time data from the ACE spacecraft (top two panels) are used to predict the shape and location of these boundaries at the present time and into the near future (The time is Universal Time as measured at Greenwich, England. Click here for information on conversions to local time).

In the figure Above, the Earth is in the center, and is illuminated from the left by the Sun (not shown). In this view, we are looking down upon the North pole; thus the figure represents the equatorial plane. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is super-magnetosonic with respect to the Earth, so that a shock wave is formed. As the solar wind flows through the shock it is slowed down, and the pressure of the solar wind is balanced by the pressure from the Earth's magnetic field. The boundary at which this pressure balance is achieved is called the magnetopause.

This gives a forecast of the intensity of the auroral oval and is based on the solar wind conditions and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. The map shows the intensity and the location of the auroral oval for the time given in the bottom of the map. The forecast is based on the current solar wind conditions and the average time for the solar wind to propagate from the ACE satellite at the L1 Lagrange point to Earth.


The ACE spacecraft monitors the solar wind from a position about 200 Earth radii (RE) sunward of the Earth. The real time solar wind data from this spacecraft allows us to predict what will happen at the Earth many minutes before the solar wind actually reaches us. Important solar wind values obtained from the ACE observations include the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) measured in units of nano-Tesla, and the dynamic pressure (also called the momentum flux) of the solar wind, measured in units of nano-Pascal. .


Geosynchronous orbit (where many weather and communication satellites orbit) is depicted by the green dashed circle.



NOAA, Space Weather Alerts and Warnings notification timeline




Warnings Currently in Effect, 7 day plot centered on today showing past 3 days and next 3 days.



To see the latest solar wind data, click play.



Click on an image for a larger view.



Watching The Far SideSolar System and Planet Positions live
Click image above for current dataClick image above for current view







Solar and electromagnetic spectrumCurrent inner solar system positionsCurrent sunspot data


Solar Cycle Data







Sunspot Number ProgressionRadio Flux ProgressionAP Progression


The recent Solar Cycle is represented in several ways. On the left is the Sunspot Number, in the middle, the F10.7cm Radio Flux, and on the right, the Ap Index (a measure of geomagnetic activity) history.


In all of the plots, the black line represents the monthly averaged data and the blue line represents a 13-month smoothed version of the monthly averaged data. For the Sunspot Number and F10.7cm, the forecast for the rest of the solar cycle is given by the red line.



More Solar Images







SOHO EIT 171SOHO EIT 284SOHO EIT 304







GONG H-alphaSTEREO BehindSTEREO Ahead


Click on an image for a larger view.







EVE Soft X-Ray Updates every 10 minutesGlobal D-Region Absorption Updates every minuteLatest CME Data


The Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) is a pinhole camera that is sensitive to X-rays. This channel is a lower resolution image of the Sun in the wavelength range from 0.1-7nm. Because this is a large wavelength range, there are many different emissions from ions as well as continuum emissions within this band. This image clearly shows where active regions and flares occur. In the second image the large white square is the peak location, and the diamond is the centroid.



The D-Region Absorption Product addresses the operational impact of the solar X-ray flux and SEP events on HF radio communication. Long-range communications using high frequency (HF) radio waves (3 - 30 MHz) depend on reflection of the signals in the ionosphere. Radio waves are typically reflected near the peak of the F2 layer (~300 km altitude), but along the path to the F2 peak and back the radio wave signal suffers attenuation due to absorption by the intervening ionosphere.


The D-Region Absorption Prediction model is used as guidance to understand the HF radio degradation and blackouts this can cause



The CME Prediction Model on the right is released by Goddard Space Flight Center. it's used for forecasting Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The model shows the ecliptic plane with the current positions of the four inner planets, and the position of the solar satellites.









Solar X-ray FluxACE 2 Hour PlotSolar wind: magnetic field and plasma

The Solar X-ray Flux plot (above left) contains 5 minute averages of solar X-ray output in the 1-8 Angstrom (0.1-0.8 nm) and 0.5-4.0 Angstrom (0.05-0.4 nm) passbands. Data from the SWPC Primary and Secondary GOES X-ray satellites are shown. Some data dropouts from the Primary satellite will occur during satellite eclipses.


The ACE 2 Hour Plot (above center) deals with Magnetic field and Plasma data. It's updated every 10 minutes


ACE satellite performs measurements over a wide range of energy and nuclear mass, under all solar wind flow conditions and during both large and small particle events including solar flares. It provides near-real-time solar wind information over short time periods. ACE can also provide an advance warning (up to 60 minutes) of geomagnetic storms that can overload power grids, disrupt communications on Earth, and present a hazard to astronauts. .







Real-time solar wind dataHigh energy protonsLow energy protons

Real-Time Solar Wind data dials (above left) is real-time Solar Wind data broadcast from NASA's ACE satellite.


High energy protons penetrate the Earth's magnetic field in the polar regions, crash into atmospheric particles and produce ion and electron pairs that temporarily increase the density in the lowest regions of the ionosphere. This causes absorption of short wave radio signals and wide-spread blackout of communications, called a polar cap absorption event.









Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp (3-hour data) WING Kp 12 hour plotElectron Flux Plot

Geomagnetic disturbances can be monitored by ground-based magnetic observatories. The K-index is a code that is related to the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer relative to a quiet day. The K-index is updated every three hours and the information is made available to Y'all as soon as possible. The K-index scale has a range from 0 to 9 and is directly related to the maximum amount of fluctuation (relative to a quiet day) in the geomagnetic field over a three-hour interval.


The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index (above left) is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers: Boulder, Colorado; Chambon la Foret, France; Fredericksburg, Virginia; Fresno, California; Hartland, UK; Newport, Washington; Sitka, Alaska. These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris.


The KP 12 hour plot, the dashed red line indicates the lowest alert level, G1 (minor), on the NOAA Space Weather Scale. The solid blue line is the Estimated Kp index. The bottom Lead Time panel shows an estimate of the actual lead time which depends on solar wind speed. The lead time is the time for the solar wind to propagate from the ACE satellite, at L1, to the Earth. Missing Kp values, Lead Time values, or model output indicates the data is not available at SWPC. .

This electron flux plot (above right) contains the 5-minute averaged integral electron flux (electrons/cm2-s-sr) with energies greater than or equal to 0.8 MeV and greater than or equal to 2 MeV at GOES-13 (W75). These data are invalid during a significant proton event because of sensor contamination at the GOES spacecraft. Enhanced fluxes of electrons for an extended period of time have been associated with deep dielectric charging anomalies.







Northern hemisphereSouthern hemisphereSouthern hemisphere D-region absorption


The Southern hemisphere D Region Absorption Predictions(above right) Conditions in the D region of the ionosphere have a dramatic effect on high frequency (HF) communications and low frequency (LF) navigation systems. The global D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) depicts the D region at high latitudes where it is driven by particles as well as low latitudes, where photons cause the prompt changes. .

The left and center maps are generated by OVATION Prime - a new-generation precipitation model (Newell et al., 2010) driven by an optimized solar wind coupling function (Newell et al., 2007). The model includes seasonal variation and separates different types of auroras - mono-energetic, wave, diffuse and ion. In these maps all types are summed together - Electrons + Ions: 10Re above Earth..








Northern hemisphere D-region absorptionGeomagnetic Field Solar X-rays

The Northern hemisphere D-region(Above left) D Region Absorption Predictions(above right) Conditions in the D region of the ionosphere have a dramatic effect on high frequency (HF) communications and low frequency (LF) navigation systems. The global D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) depicts the D region at high latitudes where it is driven by particles as well as low latitudes, where photons cause the prompt changes.


The Geomagnetic Field status monitor (Above center) downloads data periodically from the NOAA Space Environment Center FTP server. The previous 24 hours of 3 hour Planetary Kp Index data is analyzed and an appropriate level of activity for the past 24 hours is assigned as follows:


Quiet: the Geomagnetic Field is quiet (Kp < 4).

Active: the Geomagnetic Field has been unsettled (Kp=4).

Storm: A Geomagnetic Storm has occurred (Kp>4).


The X-ray Solar status monitor (Above right) downloads data periodically from the NOAA Space Environment Center FTP server. The previous 24 hours of 5 minute Long-wavelength X-ray data from each satellite (GOES 8 and GOES 10) is analyzed, and an appropriate level of activity for the past 24 hours is assigned as follows:


Normal: Solar X-ray flux is quiet (< 1.00e-6 W/m^2).

Active: Solar X-ray flux is active (>= 1.00e-6 W/m^2).

M Class Flare: An M Class flare has occurred (X-ray flux >= 1.00e-5 W/m^2).

X Class Flare: An X Class flare has occurred (X-ray flux >= 1.00e-4 W/m^2).

Mega Flare: An unprecedented X-ray event has occurred (X-ray flux >= 1.00e-3 W/m^2).

The designation "Mega Flare" was chosen by Kevin Loch when the status monitor was created on March 4, 1999. There is no "official" designation for flares in this range .







Wireless communications status



GPSWCDMAWLAN

The plots show the current status of some of the most used wireless systems. Their approximate degradation is calculated using the current solar flux intensity and factors such as typical link margins and signal-to-noise ratios, specific to each system


The GPS is on a Frequency: 1.575GHz.


The WCDMA (3G/UMTS)Frequency: 2.2140GHz


The WLAN(WiFi/802.11b,g)Frequency: 2.4GHz..









WLLLTE-800LTE-1800

The WLL (WiFi/802.11n, WiMax/802.16) Frequency: 5.8GHz.


The LTE-800 Frequency: 876.5MHz


The LTE-1800 Frequency: 1855MHz



Current Position Of The ISS.




NOAA Space Weather Scales for geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts.





News and Information from SpacewWeather.com.




3 Day Forecast.




sky conditions from my father's private observatory in northern New York.





American Meteor Society


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